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City of Phoenix

  •   State: 
    Maricopa County
      County FIPS: 
    33°26′54″N 112°04′26″W
      Area total: 
    519.28 sq mi
      Area land: 
    518.27 sq mi (1,342.30 km²)
      Area water: 
    1.02 sq mi (2.63 km²)
    1,086 ft (331 m)
    1867; Settled 1867; Incorporated February 25, 1881
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler, AZ
    Mountain Standard Time (MST) UTC-7:00; Arizona does not observe daylight saving time.
      ZIP codes: 

    Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    3,102.92 residents per square mile of area (1,198.04/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers. It became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. Cotton, cattle, citrus, climate, and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. The city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid to late 2000s. It is the cultural center of the state of Arizona. The Phoenix metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with approximately 4.85 million people as of 2020. Phoenix, the seat of Maricopa County, has the largest area of all cities in Arizona, with an area of 517.9 square miles (1,341 km²) It is also the 11 fourth largest city by area in the U.S. by population. The Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created roughly 135 miles (217 kilometers) of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, and paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct. They also carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans, Mogollon, and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. In 1863, Phoenix's residents became the part of the New Mexico Territory.


Phoenix is the primary city name, but also Anthem, Desert Hills are acceptable city names or spellings. The official name is City of Phoenix. The Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created roughly 135 miles (217 kilometers) of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable. The Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area. They lived in small villages with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Other nearby settlements later merged to become the city of Tempe. The city was officially established in December 1868, and the first post office was established the following month. In October 1870, valley residents met to select a new name for the new valley's growing population. This year, Phoenix was officially recognized as the new city of Phoenix by the Board of Supervisors of Yavapai County. It was named after the former civilization of Phoenix, as it was described as a "city born from a former civilization", as it described the ruins of a former city. The name Phoenix was used for the city's downtown core, which is three miles to the west of the original settlement, and began to be sold under the name of Phoenix on 4 May 1868. It is believed periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohkam civilization's abandonment of the area in the early 1800s.


Phoenix is in the south-central portion of Arizona; about halfway between Tucson to the southeast and Flagstaff to the north. The metropolitan area is known as the "Valley of the Sun" due to its location in the Salt River Valley. It lies at a mean elevation of 1,086 feet (331 m), in the northern reaches of the Sonoran Desert. There are 15 urban villages: Ahwatukee Foothills, Alhambra, Camelback East, Central City, Deer Valley, Desert View, Encanto, Estrella, Laveen, Maryvale, North Gateway, North Mountain, Paradise Valley, Rio Vista, and South Mountain. Although the urban village of Paradise Valley is part of Phoenix, the town is independent. Like most of Arizona, Phoenix does not observe daylight saving time. Even though it is the fifth most populated city, the large area gives it a low density rate of approximately 2,797 people per square mile. In comparison, Philadelphia, the sixth most populous city, has a density of over 11,000. Some native flora and fauna can be found within the city limits, such as the Mexican free-tailed bat and western pipleistooth bat. The city has a variety of commonly referred-to regions and districts such as Downtown, Midtown, West Phoenix, South Phoenix, North Phoenix, Biltmore Area, Arcadia, and Sunnyslope. It is also home to the University of Phoenix.


Phoenix has long, extremely hot summers and short, mild winters. The city is within one of the world's sunniest regions, with its sunshine duration comparable to the Sahara region. Average high temperatures in summer are the hottest of any major city in the United States. The region's trademark dry and sunny weather is interrupted by sporadic Pacific storms in the winter and the arrival of the North American monsoon in the summer. August is the wettest month (0.93 in (24 mm)), while June is the driest (0.02 in (4 mm) The city of Phoenix recorded its single highest rainfall total by the National Weather Service with 3.30 in (84 mm) on September 8, 2014, breaking the 75-year-old record of 2.91 in (74 mm), set on September 4, 1939. On average, dew points range from 31 °F (1 °C) in April to 58 °C (14 °F) in August. The daily normal low remains at or above 80°F (27°C) for an average of 74 days per summer. On July 15, 2003, Phoenix set its record for the warmest daily low temperature, at 96 °C. The annual minimum temperature in Phoenix is in the mid-to-low 30s (0 °F to 32°F) It rarely drops to 32 °F or below, having done so only nine years in a row between 1991 and 2020 on a total of seventeen days.


Phoenix's population grew by 9.4% since the 2000 census (a total of 124,000 people), while the entire Phoenix metropolitan area grew by 28.9%. This compares with an overall growth rate nationally during the same time frame of 9.7%. In 2016, Phoenix once again became the fastest growing city in the United States, adding approximately 88 people per day during the preceding year. The population is almost equally split between men and women, with men making up 50.2% of city's citizens. The city has 590,149 dwelling units, with an occupancy rate of 87.2%. The largest segment of vacancies is in the rental market, where the vacancy rate is 14.9%, and 51% of all vacancies are in rentals. Only 10.9 of the population is over 62, with only 10.4 of those under the age of 18 and 10.5 of those 65 and older living below the poverty line. Phoenix is the most populous state capital in Arizona, with a population of 1,445,632 according to the 2010 United States census. In 2006, Phoenix's population was 1,512,986, the fifth largest just ahead of Philadelphia. The Phoenix-Mesa-Chandler MSA is one of 10 MSAs in Arizona and was the 11th largest in the U.S., with a 2018 census population estimate of 4,857,962. It had the second largest growth by percentage of the MRs between 2000 and 2010 (behind only the Gulf Coast MR).


Phoenix's early economy focused on agriculture and natural resources, especially the "5Cs" of copper, cattle, climate, cotton, and citrus. The Great Depression affected Phoenix, but Phoenix had a diverse economy and by 1934 the recovery was underway. At the conclusion of World War II, the valley's economy surged, as many men who had completed their military training at bases in and around Phoenix returned with their families. The construction industry, spurred on by the city's growth, further expanded with the development of Sun City. As of January 2016, 10.5% of the workforce were government employees, a high number because the city is both the county seat and state capital. The city is home to four Fortune 500 companies: electronics corporation Avnet, mining company Freeport-McMoRan, retailer PetSmart, and waste hauler Republic Services. Honeywell's Aerospace division is headquartered in Phoenix, and the valley hosts many of their avionics and mechanical facilities. US Air/American Airlines is the largest carrier at Phoenix's Sky Harbor International Airport. The single largest occupation is retail salespersons, which account for 3.7%. The city was severely affected by the effects of thesub-prime mortgage crash. However, Phoenix has recovered 83%. of the jobs lost due to the recession. The civilian labor force was 2,200,900. The unemployment rate stood at 4.6%.Phoenix is also home to the headquarters of U-HAUL International, Best Western, and Apollo Group, parent of the University of Phoenix.


The city has many performing arts venues, most of which are in and around downtown Phoenix or Scottsdale. The Phoenix Art Museum has the southwest's largest collection of visual art, containing more than 17,000 works of contemporary and modern art from around the world. Interactive exhibits can be found in nearby Peoria's Challenger Space Center, where individuals learn about space, renewable energies, and meet astronauts. Several television series have been set in Phoenix, including Alice (197685), the 2000s paranormal drama Medium, the 196061 syndicated crime drama The Brothers Brannagan, and The New Dick Van Dyke Show from 1971 to 1974. Frank Lloyd Wright moved to Phoenix in 1937 and built his winter home, Taliesin West, and the main campus for The Frank Lloyd Lloyd Wright School of Architecture. In April 2009, artist Janet Echelman inaugurated her monumental sculpture, Her Secret Is Patience, a civic icon suspended above the new Phoenix Civic Space Park, a two-city-block park in the middle of downtown. The Artlink organization and the galleries downtown have launched a First Friday cross-Phoenix gallery opening, as well as hosting Art Detour which has become central to the city's cultural identity. In 2015 the Children's Museum of Phoenix was recognized as one of the top three children's museums in the United States. The Heard Museum has over 130,000 sq ft (12,000 m2) of gallery, classroom and performance space. Some of the museum's signature exhibits include a full Navajo hogan and the Mareen Allen Nichols Collection of 260 pieces of contemporary jewelry.


Phoenix is one of only 13 U.S. metropolitan areas to have representatives of all four major professional sports leagues. The Phoenix Suns were the first major sports team in Phoenix, being granted a National Basketball Association franchise in 1968. The Arizona Cardinals are the oldest continuously run professional football franchise in the nation. The Greater Phoenix area is home to the Cactus League, one of two spring training leagues for Major League Baseball. The city also hosts several major professional events, including the LPGA's Founder's Cup and the PGA Tour's PGA Championship. Phoenix International Raceway is a one-mile (1.6 km) oval with a 1-of-a-kind design, as well as a 2.5-mile road course and a 4.0km (4.0 km) track. It hosts several NASCAR events per season, and the annual Fall NASCAR Fall Cup, which is a huge event with four different classes, from four different NASCAR classes. The NFL's Arizona Cardinals moved to Phoenix from St. Louis, Missouri in 1988 and play in the Western Division of the National Football League's National Football Conference. In 2018, the now-defunct Alliance of American Football announced the league's Phoenix franchise, the Arizona Hotshots, would begin playing in 2019. Phoenix has an indoor football team, theArizona Rattlers of the Indoor Football League, whose games are played at the Footprint Center. In 2001, the Diamondbacks defeated the New York Yankees four games to three in the World Series, becoming the city's first professional sports franchise to win a national championship while in Arizona.

Parks and recreation

The city of Phoenix is home to a large number of parks and recreation areas. Tonto National Forest forms part of the city's northeast boundary. South Mountain Park is the world's largest municipal park with 16,500 acres (67 km²) The Phoenix Zoo is the largest privately owned non-profit zoo in the United States. The city park system has facilities for hiking, camping, swimming, horseback riding, cycling, and climbing. The system's 182 parks contain over 41,900 acres (16,956 ha) Maricopa County has the largest park system in the country. The Desert Botanical Garden, which opened in 1939, is one of the few public gardens in the U.S. dedicated to desert plants, and displays desert plant life from all over the world. It is internationally known for its programs devoted to saving endangered species. The park system's other notable parks include Camelback Mountain, Encanto Park (another large urban park) and Sunnyslope Mountain, also known as "S" Mountain. Papago Park in east Phoenix is the home to both the DesertBotanical Garden and the Phoenix Zoo, in addition to several golf courses and the Hole-in-the-Rock geological formation. The Phoenix Park System was established to preserve the desert landscape in areas that would otherwise have succumbed to development. It has 182 parks, making it the largest municipal Park System in the nation. It also includes several large urban parks, including Camelback and Encanto parks.


In 1913, Phoenix adopted a new form of government, switching from the mayor-council system to the council-manager system. The mayor and city council members each have equal voting power in regards to setting city policy and passing rules and regulations. Phoenix houses the state legislature, along with numerous state government agencies, many of which are in the State Capitol district immediately west of downtown. The Maricopa County Jail system is the fourth-largest in the country. The Federal Bureau of Prisons operates the Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) Phoenix, which is within the city limits, near its northern boundary. The Sandra Day O'Connor U.S. Courthouse is on Washington Street downtown. It is named in honor of retired U.S. Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day o'Connor, who was raised in Arizona. The Phoenix MSA has dropped to 70th in the nation in terms of car thefts in the first decade of the new century. In the late 2000s, Phoenix earned the title of the gateway to the United States for drug trafficking. Since their peak in 2001, murders have dropped from 241 to 114 in 2014, with every year since then falling to 7,200 in 2014. The violent crime rate peaked in 1993 at 1146 crimes per 100,000 people, while the property crime rates peaked a few years earlier, in 1989, at 9,9 per 100, 000. In 2012, Phoenix ranked first in the U.N. for vehicle thefts.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona = 13.8. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 65. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 10. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Phoenix = 6.4 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 1,608,139 individuals with a median age of 32.3 age the population grows by 16.83% in Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 3,102.92 residents per square mile of area (1,198.04/km²). There are average 2.85 people per household in the 532,483 households with an average household income of $47,713 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 10.00% of the available work force and has dropped -4.50% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 21.00%. The number of physicians in Phoenix per 100,000 population = 199.1.


The annual rainfall in Phoenix = 7.3 inches and the annual snowfall = 0 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 28. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 299. 105 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 35.2 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 45, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona which are owned by the occupant = 56.91%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 27 years with median home cost = $139,990 and home appreciation of -16.63%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $7.57 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $4,047 per student. There are 22.1 students for each teacher in the school, 237 students for each Librarian and 900 students for each Counselor. 6.51% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 14.89% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 7.38% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Phoenix's population in Maricopa County, Arizona of 5,544 residents in 1900 has increased 290,07-fold to 1,608,139 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 48.91% female residents and 51.09% male residents live in Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona.

    As of 2020 in Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona are married and the remaining 45.91% are single population.

  • 28.5 minutes is the average time that residents in Phoenix require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    71.47% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 17.39% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 3.14% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 3.34% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona, 56.91% are owner-occupied homes, another 36.96% are rented apartments, and the remaining 6.13% are vacant.

  • The 38.82% of the population in Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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